Research

My sources have fluctuated in number throughout the entire project. I was finally able to actually read through my sources instead of just skimming which helped me find more valuable information. Now comes the difficult part : finding out how all this information can be woven together in a  single paper. Primaries are very difficult for me to find but what I have found has not been sent to the discard pile like some of my secondaries. The book that was an english translation that I ordered from amazon.com still has not arrived so I will not be using that like I had hoped to. Maybe I will be able to include those findings in my 499 project. I have been taking notes on my readings and am looking for more common themes to make my work more organized and more tolerable for me to work through. I am still tweaking my thesis but the changes have not been too drastic. A few words plus or minus here and there. I need to work on writing down what that actual solid thesis will be however. I have an idea but explaining it outloud usually takes more than a  sentence….

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Primary

Primary sources have been difficult to find but I am finding that most of my primary material is woven in with secondary works.

Nyiszil, Miklos. Auschwitz: A Doctor’s Eyewitness Account. New York : Arcade Publishing, 1993.

This primary source gives a different view than the perspective I was looking for but is extremely informative. Dr. Nyisszil performed autopsies for Doctor Josef Mengele and his journals log the worries that he had while in his position.

Taylor, Telford. “Opening Statement of the Prosecution December 9, 1946.” In The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation, edited by George J. Annas and Michael A. Grodin,67-93. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992

This primary source is also extremely important as it is the opening statement at the Nuremberg trials. This gives a very summarized version of the atrocities uncovered. Many experiments are briefly described in this statement making it a valuable document.

Konopka, Gisela. “The Meaning of the Holocaust for Bioethics.” In When Medicine Went Mad: Bioethics and the Holocaust, edited by Arthur L. Caplan, 15-20. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press,1992.

Kor, Eva Mozes. “Nazi Experiments as Viewed by a Survivor of Mengele’s Experiments.” In When Medicine Went Mad: Bioethics and the Holocaust, edited by Arthur L. Caplan, 3-8. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press,1992.

Kor, Eva Mozes. “The Mengele Twins and Human Experimentation: A Personal Account.” In The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation, edited by George J. Annas and Michael A. Grodin, 53-59. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Vigorito, Sara Seiler. “A Profile of Nazi Medicine: The Nazi Doctor- His Methods and Goals.” In When Medicine Went Mad: Bioethics and the Holocaust, edited by Arthur L. Caplan, 9-14. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 1992.

These 4 essays are written by a few of the surviving victims of experimentation. Their perspective provides  insight into how they think and feel about what happened to them. Their essays are included in collections of secondary sources. In Caplan’s book, he puts forth the effort of preceding the rest of the essays with the primary essays.

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Organization…

I am very well known by friends and family for my use of sticky notes. I really hate writting in books even if it is in pencil but most of the time post its or flags do not mess up the pages.

I also use index cards to keep track of the citation information. Once I have been more thurough with the readings I make note cards with pertinent quotes that I think may help me. I cite the book or source as soon as I see soemthing I can use, that way I do not wait until the last minute. When I am ready to officailly add it to the bibilography, I have already done most of the work.

While reading I have a note pad with key words to look out for and a pencil to add more. This way I always have an ever growing list of search terms.

My public library hates me. I print off all my electronic sources so it is easier on my eyes and so I can high light and write all over them. By printing things off I amavoiding headaches, which allows me more time to work.

I also have this weird but sort of useful system for my book sources. I sort them by primary, seconday or both. Most relevant goes to the top of the stack and the book with the least useable information stays at the bottom waiting to be used. A weird system that I established early on in my reseach

Most importantly, I have a  folder to keep all of this together. Anything I print, goes straight into the folder. Any assignment that is related, goes right into the folder along with any feedback.

 

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Updated Bibliography

Primaries:

Konopka, Gisela. “The Meaning of the Holocaust for Bioethics.” In When Medicine Went Mad: Bioethics and the Holocaust, Edited by Arthur L. Caplan, 15-20. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press,1992.

Kor, Eva Mozes. “Nazi Experiments as Viewed by a Survivor of Mengele’s Experiments.” In When Medicine Went Mad: Bioethics and the Holocaust, Edited by Arthur L. Caplan, 3-8. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press,1992.

Kor, Eva Mozes. “The Mengele Twins and Human Experimentation: A personal Account.” In The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation, Edited by George J. Annas and Michael A. Grodin, 53-59. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Nyiszil,Miklos. Auschwitz: A Doctor’s Eyewitness Account. New York : Arcade Publishing, 1993.

Taylor, Telford. “Opening Statement of the Prosecution December 9, 1946.” In The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation, Edited by George J. Annas and Michael A. Grodin,67-93. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992

Vigorito, Sara Seiler. “A Profile of Nazi Medicine: The Nazi Doctor- His Methods and Goals.” In When Medicine Went Mad: Bioethics and the Holocaust, Edited by Arthur L. Caplan, 9-14. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 1992.

 

Secondaries:

Ain, Stewart, “Nazi Medical Experiments More Common Than Thought,” The Jewish Federations of North America. http://www.jewishfederations.org/page.aspx?id=55706 (accessed September 12, 2012)

Aly, Götz ,Peter Chroust, and Christian Pross. Cleansing the Fatherland: Nazi Medicine and Racial Hygiene. Baltimore: Josh Hopkins University Press, 1994.

Caplan, Arthur L. ,ed. When Medicine Went Mad: Bioethics and the Holocaust. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press,1992.

Colaianni, Alessandra. “A long shadow: Nazi doctors, moral vulnerability and contemporary medical culture.” Journal of Medical Ethics 38(2011): 435-438.

Crowe, David M. The Holocaust: Roots, History, and Aftermath. Boulder, Coloarado: Westview Press, 2008.

Glantz, Leonard H. “The Influences of the Nurembergo Code on U.S. Statutes and Regulations.”  In The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation, Edited by George J. Annas and Michael A. Grodin, 183-200. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Helmrich, William B. “Living with the Nightmares.” In The Holocaust, edited by Mitchell G. Bard, 200-209. San Diego :Greenhaven Press, Inc., 2001.

Lafleur, William R., Gernot Böhme, and Susumu Shimazono ,.ed.  Dark Medicine: Rationalizing Unethical Medical Research. Bloomington, IN : Indiana University Press, 2008.

Lifton, Robert Jay. “Human Guinea Pigs.” In The Holocaust, edited by Mitchell G. Bard, 87-98. San Diego :Greenhaven Press, Inc., 2001.

Lifton, Robert Jay. The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers, 1986.

McFarland-Icke, Bronwyn Rebekah. Nurses in Nazi German: Moral Choice in History. Princeton,N J: Princeton University Press,1999.

Post, Stephen G. “The echo of Nuremberg: Nazi data and ethics.” Journal of Medical Ethics 17 (1991): 42-44.

Quinn, Carol. “Taking Seriously Victims of Unethical Experiments: Susan Brison’s Conception of the Self and Its Relevance to Bioethics.”Journal of Social Philosophy 31 (Fall 2000):316-325.

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Citations as of right now…

As of right now these are my sources. I have 3 books that I am picking up from the library tommrrow and there is a  source that I am unsure of how to cite. After I get the books tommrrow, that puts me at 19 sources.

Primaries:

Konopka, Gisela. “The Meaning of the Holocaust for Bioethics.” In When Medicine Went Mad: Bioethics and the Holocaust, Edited by Arthur L. Caplan, 15-20. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press,1992.

Kor, Eva Mozes. “Nazi Experiments as Viewed by a Survivor of Mengele’s Experiments.” In When Medicine Went Mad: Bioethics and the Holocaust, Edited by Arthur L. Caplan, 3-8. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press,1992.

Kor, Eva Mozes. “The Mengele Twins and Human Experimentation: A personal Account.” In The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation, Edited by George J. Annas and Michael A. Grodin, 53-59. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Nyiszil,Miklos. Auschwitz: A Doctor’s Eyewitness Account. New York : Arcade Publishing, 1993.

Vigorito, Sara Seiler. “A Profile of Nazi Medicine: The Nazi Doctor- His Methods and Goals.” In When Medicine Went Mad: Bioethics and the Holocaust, Edited by Arthur L. Caplan, 9-14. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 1992.

Taylor, Telford. “Opening Statement of the Prosecution December 9, 1946.” In The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation, Edited by George J. Annas and Michael A. Grodin,67-93. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992

 

Secondaries:

Aly, Götz ,Peter Chroust, and Christian Pross. Cleansing the Fatherland: Nazi Medicine and Racial Hygiene. Baltimore: Josh Hopkins University Press, 1994.

Caplan, Arthur L. ,ed. When Medicine Went Mad: Bioethics and the Holocaust. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press,1992.

Colaianni, Alessandra. “A long shadow: Nazi doctors, moral vulnerability and

contemporary medical culture.” Journal of Medical Ethics 38(2011): 435-438.

Glantz, Leonard H. “The Influences of the Nurembergo Code on U.S. Statutes and Regulations.”  In The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation, Edited by George J. Annas and Michael A. Grodin, 183-200. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Lafleur, William R., Gernot Böhme, and Susumu Shimazono ,.ed.  Dark Medicine: Rationalizing Unethical Medical Research. Bloomington, IN : Indiana University Press, 2008.

Lifton, Robert Jay. The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers, 1986.

McFarland-Icke, Bronwyn Rebekah. Nurses in Nazi German: Moral Choice in History. Princeton,N J: Princeton University Press,1999.

Post, Stephen G. “The echo of Nuremberg: Nazi data and ethics.” Journal of Medical Ethics 17 (1991): 42-44.

Quinn, Carol. “Taking Seriously Victims of Unethical Experiments: Susan Brison’s Conception of the Self and Its Relevance to Bioethics.”Journal of Social Philosophy 31 (Fall 2000):316-325.

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Web sources: What to and not to use

http://www.remember.org/educate/medexp.html

An example of a “not good at all source”.  I wouldn’t quite call it bad because there is some factual information in there but I would definitely not use it for anything other than a  quick read.

http://www.jewishfederations.org/page.aspx?id=55706

This is not an amazing source but it does give a good point that it is still very relevant today.

http://www.ushmm.org/research/library/bibliography/index.php?content=medical_experiments

This by far has been my best web source! An excellent bibiliography along with any background knowledge I could ever need.

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Topic Progression

Initially the topic I was intending to research was the affects of the two most infamous concentration camps, Auschwitz and Dachau.  After countless hours of seaching I determined that that quest was much too large for me.. I changed my focus to the medical experiments performed by Nazi’s during the Holocaust. Even from this point, I needed to narrow my topic down even further. In one of the secondary sources I stumbled upon, they stated that the voice of the surviving victim often goes unheard.  So far I have found 4 promising primary sources, one of which is the memoirs of a  Jewish Doctor who was forced to serve along side Doctor Josef Mengele. On my quest I hope to gain a better grasp of what they experienced in those labs. So far Eva Mozes Kor’s story has tugged on my heart strings the most.

 

To find out more about my research comment, email, or tweet me your questions and I will get back to you as soon as possible.

 

Tweet me  @MabieUMWHist

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Primary Source Analysis

The primary source that I intend to use is Behind Every Name a Story: Miroslav Grunwald’s Memories, Dachau from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum’s Holocaust Encyclopedia. My goal is to determine what specifically occurred within the walls of Dachau in hopes of gaining a better understanding of the interworking of concentration camps from 1933 to 1945. Dachau, being the first recorded and longest standing concentration camp, is one of the best examples of the concentration camp experience.

This first person account appears to be an interview of Miroslav Grundwald’s experiences of his traveling and arrival at Dachau. Although it is unclear as to when he was interviewed, he stated that he was incarcerated during the winter months of 1943-44. Grundwald provides and intriguing account of the admission process to Dachau, from the herding into box cars to the physical examinations of the inmates. Grundwald’s account appears to accurately depict the confusion and fear that people on their way and within Dachau experienced.

Although this source is a good starting point, it is very unclear. This will most likely not be my main primary source. The big issue that I foresee with this source is the shortness and the lack of clarity of origination. I hope to find several different accounts of the camp to form a rounded view of the concentration camp and what occurred within the walls, hidden from the eyes of the public at the time.

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007966

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. “Behind Every Name a Story: Miroslav Grunwald’s Memories, Dachau”. Holocaust Encyclopedia. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007966. Accessed on September 3, 2012.

 

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Twitter

I just made a  twitter account to accopany this blog. If anyone knows how to  add the twitter feed to the sidebar I would greatly appreciate the help.

So follow me if you want. Will certainly be quicker than reading a  whole blog post and I will try to tweet as often as I deem necessary pertaining to this page.

MabieUMWHist

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Why am I a history major?

I am a  history major for several reasons. The first would be that I am fascinated with the inate human need to know where we came from. When I was a  little girl, I remember reading this book called Are you my mother? and in it there is a small chick that hatches while its mother is away. The story follows the chick as it goes up to other animals and asks “are you my mother?” in an attempt to find out who and what it is.

 History can tell us where we came from and contributes to who we are as people. For example, I was born in Germany. If my mother had not joined the Army, she would not have met my father. If they had not met, they would not have fought in Desert Shield and Desert Storm together and I would not have been created and so on and so forth. Because of all these minute facts and how they combined, I have a unique history all my own. Any deviation from these events could have changed everything.

With history there is no real way of knowing what could have been. There is no way of knowing whether one day, hour, or minute could have made all the difference.  Could we have won World War II without the use of nuclear explosives? We will never know for sure, but as historians we can infer what may have happened. Maybe the war only would have lasted another month or maybe another year. There is no way of knowing what could have happened.

History is mysterious in some ways. Despite all of the information that has been collected over the centuries, there are still some things that we do not know about the past and we may never know.

We can learn from the mistakes of the past. Personally, I think this is one of the main reasons why hostory was recorded in the first place. They say that hindsight is 20/20 which makes perfect sense that people would want to use their experiences so that others could learn from their mistakes. Despite this, there are mistakes that humans make time and time again. To learn from others mistakes, we must first be open to the idea that we are flawed. No-one is perfect.

These are just a few of the reasons that I became a  history major. I was lucky enough to have some amazing teachers in high school who inspired me and my passion for history.

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